Praise be to Allah (سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَىٰ), for Allah (سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَىٰ) forgives all sins: for He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
The Banu Umayya (Arabic: بنو أمية ), also known as the Umayyads (Arabic: الأمويون / بنو أمية al-Umawiyyun), were a clan of the Quraysh tribe descended from Umayya ibn Abd Shams. The clan staunchly opposed Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله), and the spread of Islam. A member of the clan, Uthman, went on to become the third Sunni caliph-usurper, while other members held various governorships. One of these governors, Mu’awiyah I, self-declared himself a caliph in 657, went to war against ruling Ali (the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله), Prophet of Islam), and in 661 established the Sunni Umayyad Caliphate.
Notable members included:
Abu Sufyan ibn Harb
Leader of the most powerful tribe of pre-Islamic Arabia. He fiercely opposed the spread of Islam and fought against Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله) and Muslims in the battles of Badr (624 CE), Uhud (625 CE) and the Trench (627 CE). Once his campaign against the spread of Islam failed, he allegedly converted to the faith, as per ,,if you can’t beat them, join them”. However, sincerity of Abu Sufyan’s conversion is contested due to the fact that he made his entire life a mission to destroy Islam and to kill the Prophet, whilst he allegedly ‘converted’ once basically defeated.
- Sunni sources (such as ,,The Complete History” by Ali ibn al-Athir, who wrote 600 years after the Abu Sufyan’s death) reported that he (Abu Sufyan) allegedly lost two eyes in the battles (siege of Ta’if and battle of Yarmouk) fighting on the Muslim side. There’s no historical proof that Abu Sufyan ever took part in afromentioned battles, nor that he lost his eyes in them. Such reports have to be taken with a considerable doubt, as Sunni ruling dynasties such as titular Umayyads, and then Abbasids, whitewashed early Islamic history to suit their ideological agendas, and to give themselves legitimacy.
Uthman ibn Affan
The third Sunni caliph-usurper. Uthman as a caliph, relied solely on his own volition in picking his cabinet, which led to decisions that breeded resistance within the Muslim community. The resistance against Uthman originated because he favored family members over any others in choosing his governors. They went so far as to impose authoritarianism over their provinces. Indeed, many anonymous letters were written to the leading companions of Muhammad, complaining about the tyranny of Uthman’s appointed governors. Moreover, letters were sent to the leaders of public opinion in different provinces concerning the reported mishandling of power by Uthman’s family. This contributed to unrest in the empire and finally to Uthman’s killing in a siege on his own house by the Muslims. One of the killers of Uthman was Abu Bakr’s own son, Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr. After the body of Uthman had been on the street for three days, Naila, Uthman’s wife, approached some of his supporters to help in his burial, but only very few people responded. The body was lifted at dusk, and because of the blockade, no coffin could be procured. The body was not washed, as Islamic teaching states that bodies are supposed to be washed before burial. Thus, Uthman was carried to the graveyard in the clothes that he was wearing at the time of his assassination. The body was carried to Jannat al-Baqi, the Muslim graveyard. However, Muslims gathered there, and they resisted the burial of Uthman in the graveyard of the Muslims. Instead, the supporters of Uthman buried him in the Jewish graveyard behind Jannat al-Baqi. Some decades later, the Umayyad rulers demolished the wall separating the two cemeteries and merged the Jewish cemetery into the Muslim one to ensure that his tomb was now inside a Muslim cemetery (1, 2, 3).
- R. V. C. Bodley and the Encyclopædia Britannica, mention that during Muhammad’s (صلى الله عليه وآله) lifetime, Uthman was not an outstanding figure and was not assigned to any authority, and was not ever distinguished in any of Muhammad’s (صلى الله عليه وآله) campaigns.
Muʿawiyah ibn Abu Sufyan aka Muawiyah I
The son of Abu Sufyan. The first tyrant of the Sunni Umayyad Caliphate. Appointed as the governor of Syria by the second Sunni caliph-usurper, Umar (who in turn was appointed by the first Sunni caliph-usurper, Abu Bakr). Given even more power and priviliges under the third Sunni caliph-usurper, Uthman (also of Banu Umayya), Muawiyah was dismissed from his post by Ali ibn Abu Talib (first rightful successor to Muhammad ( صلى الله عليه وآله), his father-in-law). Not being able to deal with his dismissal that de facto weakened the Umayyad stronghold in Syria, in 657 Muawiyah declared himself a caliph and went to war with Ali, despite the latter being a ruling caliph and a member of Prophet’s closest family (unlike Muawiyah). Both sides clashed at the Battle of Siffin (657 CE), and thanks only to Ali’s piety, treacherous Muawiyah escaped unharmed. After Ali was assassinated in 661, Muawiyah again declared himself a caliph and established the Umayyad Caliphate. Prophet’s living family members disagreed with that, correctly and logically laying claim to the rulership. When Ali was assassinated and people gave allegiance to Hassan, Muawiyah prepared to fight with him. The battles led to inconclusive skirmishes between the armies of Hassan and Muawiyah. Hassan ibn Ali, Prophet’s grandson and Ali’s son, agreed to a treaty with Muawiyah, to avoid the agonies of a further civil war, and to stop the Umayyad genocide against the Prophet’s family, their loyal followers (Shia Muslims) and Sahaba (Companions of Muhammad). According to the treaty, Hassan for the time being ceded the caliphate to Muawiyah, but the latter was to name no successor during his reign. Authority should be for Hassan after Muawiyah, and if an accident occurs, authority should go to Hussain ibn Ali (Prophet’s grandson and Ali’s son), Muawiyah has no right to entrust authority to anyone. He was also to abandon cursing the Ali ibn Abu Talib and the practice of using the qunut in the salat against him, Muawiyah should also not mention Ali unless in a good manner. Eventually, Hassan ibn Ali was poisoned on the order of Muawiyah, who in turn appointed as successor his own son, Yazid ibn Muawiyah.
- It’s noteworthy to mention that it was Muawiyah himself who established the Umayyad tradition of cursing Ali from the pulpits of caliphate’s mosques. The cursing finally came to an end with the fall of the Sunni Umayyad dynasty. According to the Sunni books, Muawiyah’s hatred towards Ali was so great, that the people ceased reciting Talbiyah during Hajj out of fear of Muawiyah and the hatred of Ali ibn Abi Talib that he planted in them (1). Not surprisingly, adherents to the Sunni religion till this day invoke Radhiallahu ‘anhu (eng. God is pleased with him) after the Muawiyah’s name.
Yazid ibn Mu‘awiya aka Yazid I
The son of Muawiyah. The second tyrant of the Sunni Umayyad Caliphate. Robert Payne quotes Muawiyah in History of Islam as telling his son Yazid to defeat Hussein ibn Ali (Prophet’s grandson and Ali’s son), as Hussein was a descendent of Muhammad, and so a direct threat to the unjust Sunni Umayyad rule. Even Sunni sources mention that the appointment of Yazid was unpopular, including in Madina too (1). As mentioned in the (Shia) Muslim and Sunni sources (for example, Al-Tabari in his Tarikh Al-Tabari, Ibn Kathir in his Al Bidayah Wal Nihayah, Al-Dhahabi in his Tarikh al-Islam al-Kabir), Yazid is fully responsible for numerous anti-Islamic acts; the death of Hussein ibn Ali (Prophet’s grandson and Ali’s son) and his followers (Prophet’s Companions, Shia Muslims) at the battle of Karbala (680 CE), considered an ambush-massacre; the aftermath of the Battle of al-Harrah (683 CE), in which the troops of Yazid’s general, Muslim bin Uqbah al-Marri, pillaged the town of Medina; the burning of the Kaaba during the siege of Mecca (683 CE), which was done on the orders of Yazid’s commander Husayn ibn Numayr al-Sakuni. He was also an alcoholic and adulterer.
He was strong, brave, deliberative, full of resolve, acumen, and eloquence. He composed good poetry. He was also a stern, harsh, and coarse Nasibi. He drank and was a reprobate. He inaugurated his Dawla with the killing of the martyr al-Husayn and closed it with the catastrophe of al-Harrah. Hence the people despised him, he was not blessed in his life, and many took up arms against him after al-Husayn such as the people of Madînah – they rose for the sake of Allâh.
Sunni source: Al-Dhahabi, Siyar a`lam al-nubala’ (eng. The Lives of Noble Figures), 4:37-38.
All of that, however, doesn’t stop modern day Sunnis from rehabilitating Yazid, just as they did with his father, Muawiyah. In the video below, Sunnis are screaming towards the Shia Muslims; “Yazid – Paradise”…
YouTube is full of modern day Sunni apologetics for the man who killed Prophet’s grandson and shelled Kaaba:
- It is also noteworthy to mention that the Umayyads withdrew from the siege of Mecca in 683 CE only because of the Yazid’s sudden death (he was killed by his own horse after it lost control). However, in 692 CE the Sunni Umayyad Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan sent his General Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf with a large army to Mecca to put an end to the rule of Muslims that refused to acknowledge the Banu Umayya godless rule. Ibn Yusuf bombarded the Holy City using catapults from the mountain of Abu Qubays. The bombardment continued during the month of Pilgrimage or Hajj. After a long and bloody combat, the city was eventually taken.
Further Sunni Umayyad Caliphs were responsible for a continuous persecution of the Prophet’s family, until they were overthrown in 750 CE by the Sunni Abbasids who managed to take power over thanks solely to the Shia Muslim masses that were lied to, that after the Umayyads, Abbasids would hand the power over to the Prophet Muhammad’s (صلى الله عليه وآله) family members. Abbasids didn’t, what’s more, they went on a rabid and fanatical persecution of Shia Muslims and the remaining family of the last Prophet of Islam. Not the first, nor a last time, when Sunnis betrayed (Shia) Muslims and insulted Allah (سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَىٰ). There were countless armed rebellions and uprisings of Muslims disaffected with the Umayyad and Abbasid rulers. Mainly by the family members of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله).
And do not mix the truth with falsehood or conceal the truth while you know [it]. [2:42]